26.4.22

L’arte e la maestria dello stampatore


Divagando nei post di settore leggo ancora spesso, troppo spesso, frasi del tipo

l’arte di stendere il colore sulla carta

, oppure,

lo stampatore è un mestiere per persone dall’occhio sopraffino e le mani d’oro

… che noia, si é ancora soliti affiancare il lavoro dello stampatore al lavoro dell’artista confondendo, volontariamente od involontariamente, l’arte con la maestria; quasi come se essere realisti e togliere questa aurea “magica” al validissimo mestiere dello stampatore, oggi divenuto invero un compito altamente tecnico, lo sminuisse, lo rendesse meno importante.

Forse questo poteva avere una logica anni or sono, quando la “magia” di vedere apparire da un mostro meccanico dei fogli stampati, suscitava negli astanti un tale stupore da elevare l’operatore della macchina da stampa alla qualifica di mago e quindi di artista.

Alla base resta la considerazione che molti hanno, sia da parte di titolari d’azienda che da persone non del mestiere, di cosa significhi essere un capo-macchina oggi. Molti credono ancora che lo stampatore debba essere quella sorta di artigiano dal camice nero con le mani sporche d’inchiostro e dalla spiccata vena “artistica”; non vi è nulla di più falso. Il buon stampatore oggi è un tecnico specializzato in: meccanica, informatica e colorimetria, il tutto condito da un pizzico di chimica. La sua abilità consiste nel saper riprodurre fedelmente e con costanza il bilanciamento cromatico definito per ogni specifica condizione di stampa.

Con la scusa de “il cliente ha sempre ragione”, si eccede invece in ampie personalizzazioni delle impostazioni di macchina ed inchiostri, addirittura durante la tiratura stessa. Inseguendo quel “mi piace” del tutto soggettivo, espresso dal cliente che supervisiona ed intralcia l’avviamento, ci si sente titolati a giustificare stravolgimenti cromatici che annullano e banalizzano tutta la filiera del colore che va dal brand owner, allo studio grafico per poi passare dal prestampa e finire al reparto di produzione lastre. Come può un banale “mi piace” prevaricare ed annichilire il lavoro svolto da una intera filiera di professionisti?

Come possiamo capire allora se siamo di fronte ad una riproduzione fedele al progetto iniziale oppure ad una pseudo-variazione sul tema? Lo strumento principe consiste nella capacità di valutazione dell’osservatore, qualità che non può certo esprimersi con i canonici “mi piace” o “non mi piace” figli del nostro banale e squallido mondo ipersoggettivo. Come può lo spropositato ego di chi vuole elevarsi al livello di pseudo-artista, sopraffare tutto il lavoro svolto in precedenza da altri? Coloro i quali pretendono di avere “l’occhio sopraffino”, si ricordino che un sarto dalle mani d’oro è tale perché coadiuvato dai suoi fedeli strumenti di lavoro; ago, filo e metro per le misure. Senza l’ausilio di tali strumenti anche il miglior sarto diviene un sarto mediocre, così come mediocre è l’osservatore che non sappia misurare e tenere sotto controllo il colore e pretenda invece di poterlo gestire “ad occhio”. Così come quel sarto che sostenesse fieramente di “non aver bisogno del metro”, starebbe in realtà nascondendo con la propria superbia il fatto di non saper leggerne i numeri stampati; allo stesso modo lo stampatore che sostiene di “non aver bisogno dello spettrofotometro”, sta solo nascondendo la triste realtà di non saper utilizzare quegli strumenti messigli a disposizione dalla tecnologia al fine di migliorare le sue capacità valutative.

L’opera stampata è la risultante di accurate impostazioni e misurazioni necessarie per il suo adattamento al modello prestabilito dal committente. Perché non importa se l’opera che mi è stata commissionata possa piacermi o no; tutto ciò è solo frutto del gusto personale, quello che conta invece è l’osservazione e la misurazione dei canoni di accettabilità prestabiliti fra committente e stampatore.
Un’opera potrà infatti anche non piacermi ma io devo essere in grado di coglierne la qualità oggettiva, al di là del mio gusto personale. L’arte non è piacere, non è questione di gusto. L’arte è, contrariamente a ciò che molti credono, assolutamente oggettiva, con buona pace degli pseudo-artisti di cui sopra. Il gusto personale non viene mai preso in considerazione né dall’arte né dalla scienza. Si tratta sempre di attuare valutazioni oggettive. Un quadro di Picasso potrà anche sembrarvi orrendo, ma verrà eternamente considerato dai professionisti del settore un’opera d’arte eccelsa. Alla stessa stregua una buona stampa potrà anche non piacervi, ma verrà sempre ritenuta dagli esperti di settore fedele all’originale, quando questa sottostà ai canoni di qualità prestabiliti.

Smettiamola allora di confondere le capacità tecniche dello stampatore con l’arte, con tutta la stima che provo per gli artisti trovo molto più gratificante riconoscere le validissime capacità tecniche di un capo-macchina, piuttosto che spacciarlo per uno pseudo-artista. In questo settore servono tecnici capaci e non fantasiosi artisti, siate dunque sempre fieri ed orgogliosi della vostra maestria tecnica. Non lasciatevi tentare dagli eccessi richiesti da chi non è del mestiere, e ricordatevi sempre che ogni “estro creativo” attuato in macchina da stampa è utile solo a distruggere ed invalidare tutto il duro lavoro fatto dai vostri colleghi prima di voi.

La filiera del colore pone le sue fondamenta su pochi ma granitici pilastri che possiamo così riassumere: una dettagliata descrizione dei colori pieni legata alla scelta del punto di bianco, una minuziosa descrizione dell’ingrossamento del punto (TVI) coadiuvata dal bilanciamento dei grigi. Queste sono le ineludibili fondamenta su cui tutto si basa, tolte le quali non stiamo riproducendo un campione colore, ma stiamo solo bensì navigando a vista.

Ah… un ultima cosa; lasciamo gli stampatori “pittori”, quelli che al posto del Ciano mettono il blu di Prussia ed al posto del Magenta usano il Rosso Scarlatto, a chi antepone il proprio ego al rispetto del lavoro altrui, facendo così impazzire del tutto la filiera del colore.

Buona stampa.

15.2.22

Quali sono le norme ISO usate nelle arti grafiche?



Quali sono le norme ISO usate nelle arti grafiche?


È presto detto...


ISO 2834-1:2020

Graphic technology — Laboratory preparation of test prints — Part 1: Paste inks

 

This document specifies a test procedure for the preparation of test prints on paper, board, metals, foils and other suitable substrates using paste inks, such as for offset and letterpress printing, using electrically driven IGT-type and prüfbau-type printability testers.

 

This document describes the procedure for reference optical density and reference ink film thickness.

 

This document describes the method as used on the current models of testers. Most of the described procedures are also applicable in analogy to the older models but can require additional steps to be executed or recalculation of the settings to make them conform to this document

 

 

ISO 2834-2

Graphic technology — Laboratory preparation test prints — Part 2: Liquid printing inks

 

ISO 2834-2:2015 specifies a test method for preparation of test prints produced with liquid water-based or solvent-based printing inks as used in flexography and gravure printing. These test prints are intended primarily for optical tests, such as gloss, colorimetry, transparency and reflection density. They can also be used for testing light fastness and the chemical, physical and mechanical resistance to mechanical and chemical attack regarding either printing ink and/or substrate. Flexographic inks with higher viscosity, such as those cured by radiation, are also covered. This part of ISO 2834 is not applicable to inks for ink jet printing.

 

 

ISO 2834-3:2008

Graphic technology — Laboratory preparation of test prints — Part 3: Screen printing inks

 

ISO 2834-3:2008 specifies a test method for preparation of test prints produced with screen printing inks. These test prints are intended primarily for optical tests, such as colorimetry, transparency and reflection density as described in ISO 2846-4. They can also be used for testing gloss, light fastness and the chemical, physical and mechanical resistance to mechanical and chemical attack regarding either printing ink or substrate, or both.

 

 

ISO 2836:2021

Graphic technology — Prints and printing inks — Assessment of resistance of prints to various agents

 

This document specifies methods of assessing the resistance of printed materials to liquid and solid agents, solvents, varnishes and acids.

 

It applies to printing on all substrates by any of the traditional printing process (offset, screen, gravure, flexo) as well as the newer digital processes (inkjet, electrophotography).

 

Aspects of food safety and consumer protection for food contact materials are not covered.

 

 

ISO 2846-1:2017

Graphic technology — Colour and transparency of printing ink sets for four-colour printing — Part 1: Sheet-fed and heat-set web offset lithographic printing

 

ISO 2846-1:2017 specifies the colour and transparency characteristics that are to be met by each ink in a process colour ink set intended for proof and production printing using offset lithography. The specified printing conditions (which use a laboratory printability tester), the defined substrate and a method for testing to ensure conformance are also defined. Characteristics are specified for inks used for sheet-fed, heat-set web and radiation-curing processes.

 

ISO 2846-1:2017 does not apply to fluorescent inks and it does not specify pigments (or spectral characteristics? except informatively) in order not to preclude developments which may enable different pigment combinations to be used advantageously while still achieving the colorimetric requirements specified in this document.

 

 

ISO 2846-2:2007

Graphic technology — Colour and transparency of printing ink sets for four-colour printing — Part 2: Coldset offset lithographic printing

 

ISO 2846-2:2007 specifies the colour and transparency to be produced by inks intended for four-colour coldset web offset printing when printed under specified conditions on a printability tester. It also describes the test method to ensure conformance.

 

ISO 2846-2:2007 is not applicable to fluorescent inks and does not specify pigments (or spectral reflectance) so as not to preclude the use of suitable future pigment combinations and still claim compliance with its colorimetric requirements.

 

 

ISO 5776:2016

Graphic technology — Symbols for text proof correction

 

ISO 5776:2016 specifies symbols for use in copy preparation and proof correction in alphabetic languages and in logographic languages. It is applicable to texts submitted for correction, whatever their nature or presentation (manuscripts, typescripts, printer's proofs, etc.), and for marking up copy for all methods of composition.

 

Symbols for the correction of mathematical texts and colour illustrations are not included.

 

 

ISO/TS 10128:2009

Graphic technology — Methods of adjustment of the colour reproduction of a printing system to match a set of characterization data

 

ISO/TS 10128:2009 specifies three methods for the adjustment of the digital content data that is input to a printing system to achieve consistency in the printed results among a number of presses printing to the same general aim conditions. These three methods are generally identified as

 

the matching of tone value curves,

the use of near-neutral scales, and

the use of CMYK to CMYK multi-dimensional transforms.

The procedures for establishing the aim condition for the necessary transfer curves, the procedures for determining the individual transfer curves, and a comparison of the applicability of these three methods are included.

 

These adjustment procedures are applicable to printing systems that use CMYK colourants but are not restricted to those that use traditional ink on paper printing but can involve other marking technologies such as those used for proofing and/or digital printing.

  

 

ISO 12218:1997

Graphic technology — Process control — Offset platemaking

 

This International Standard establishes unified terminology, test methods and requirements for the process control of the preparation of the offset printing forme.

This International Standard

- applies to pre-sensitized metal plates;

- applies to contact exposures whether in a contact frame, step-and-repeat machine or other automated processor;

- does not apply to optical projection or direct writing techniques, although the principles may be applied by analogy;

- does not apply to non-periodic half-tone screens, although the tone value specifications may be applied by analogy.

 

 

ISO 12632:2015

Graphic technology — Ink, paper and labels — Requirements on hot alkali penetration and resistance

 

ISO 12632:2015 specifies test methods for

 

- penetrability and removal times of labels that have been wet glued on bottles intended to be refilled and reused, and

 

- resistance of printed labels against hot alkaline solution.

 

Test results always deal with systems comprising of substrates, ink films and varnish films if present. This International Standard is valid for label substrates and printed labels. Label substrates include metalized papers. The test procedures are also valid for the evaluation of inks and papers to be used in printing labels.

 

ISO 12632:2015 does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this International Standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

 

 

ISO 12634:2017

Graphic technology — Determination of tack of paste inks and vehicles by a rotary tackmeter

 

ISO 12634 specifies the test procedure for determining the tack value of neat paste inks and vehicles which have low volatility and are unreactive under normal room conditions during the timespan required for testing.

 

ISO 12634 contains a basic description of Inkometer® and Inkomat® (Geometry A) and TackOscope® and TackTester® (Geometry B).

 

 

ISO 12635:2021

Graphic technology — Plates for offset printing — Dimensions

 

This document specifies the width, length and thickness of metal lithographic printing plates (referred to hereafter as “plates”). For plates to be used in computer to plate (CtP) applications, flatness, edge straightness and burr requirements are also included. These requirements are applicable to unprocessed plates.

 

 

ISO 12636:2018

Graphic technology — Blankets for offset printing

 

ISO 12636:2017 defines vocabulary and specifies test methods, characteristics, ordering and labelling information for blankets for offset printing. This document does not apply to un-tensioned or unclamped blankets for offset printing, nor offset printing sleeves used on gapless presses.

 

 

ISO 12637-1:2006

Graphic technology — Vocabulary — Part 1: Fundamental terms

 

ISO 12637-1:2006 defines a set of fundamental terms that can be used in the drafting of other International Standards for graphic technology. In order to facilitate their translation into other languages, the definitions are worded so as to avoid, where possible, any peculiarity attached to one language. The entries in ISO 12637-1:2006 are arranged alphabetically.

 

 

ISO 12637-2:2008

Graphic technology — Vocabulary — Part 2: Prepress terms

 

ISO 12637-2:2008 defines a set of prepress terms which may be used in the drafting of other International Standards for graphic technology. In order to facilitate their translation into other languages, the definitions are worded so as to avoid, where possible, any peculiarity attached to one language.

 

 

ISO 12637-3:2009

Graphic technology — Vocabulary — Part 3: Printing terms

 

ISO 12637-3:2009 defines terms for printing systems and processes.

 

 

ISO 12637-4:2008

Graphic technology — Vocabulary — Part 4: Postpress terms

 

ISO 12637-4:2008 defines a set of postpress terms which may be used in the drafting of other International Standards for graphic technology.

 

In order to facilitate their translation into other languages, the definitions are worded so as to avoid, where possible, any peculiarity attached to one language.

 

 

ISO 12639:2004

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Tag image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT)

 

ISO 12639:2004 specifies a media-independent means for prepress electronic data exchange using a tag image file format (TIFF). ISO 12639:2004 defines image file formats for encoding colour continuous-tone picture images, colour line-art images, high-resolution continuous-tone images, monochrome continuous-tone picture images, binary picture images, binary line-art images, screened data, and images of composite final pages.

 

 

ISO 12639:2004/AMD 1:2007

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Tag image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT) — Amendment 1: Use of JBIG2-Amd2 compression in TIFF/IT

 

 

ISO 12640-1:1997

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Part 1: CMYK standard colour image data (CMYK/SCID)

 

 

ISO 12640-2:2004

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Part 2: XYZ/sRGB encoded standard colour image data (XYZ/SCID)

 

ISO 12640-2:2004 specifies a set of 15 standard colour images (encoded as both 16-bit XYZ and 8-bit RGB digital data provided in electronic data files) that can be used for the evaluation of changes in image quality during coding, image processing (including transformation compression and decompression), displaying on a colour monitor or printing. They can be used for many graphic technology applications such as research, development, product evaluation, and process control.

 

 

ISO 12640-2:2004/COR 1:2008

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Part 2: XYZ/sRGB encoded standard colour image data (XYZ/SCID) — Technical Corrigendum 1

 

 

ISO 12640-3:2007

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Part 3: CIELAB standard colour image data (CIELAB/SCID)

 

ISO 12640-3:2007 specifies a set of standard large gamut colour images (encoded as 16-bit CIELAB digital data) that can be used for the evaluation of changes in image quality during coding, image processing (including transformation, compression and decompression), displaying on a colour monitor and printing. These images can be used for research, testing and assessing of output systems such as printers, colour management systems and colour profiles.

 

 

ISO 12640-4:2011

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Part 4: Wide gamut display-referred standard colour image data [Adobe RGB 

 

ISO 12640-4:2011 specifies a set of standard wide gamut display-referred colour images [encoded as 16-bit Adobe RGB (1998) digital data] that can be used for the evaluation of changes in image quality during coding, image processing (including colour re-rendering and colour space transformations, compression and decompression), displaying on a colour monitor and printing. These images can be used for research, testing and assessing of output systems such as printers, colour management systems and colour profiles.

 

 

ISO 12640-5:2013

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Part 5: Scene-referred standard colour image data (RIMM/SCID)

 

ISO 12640-5:2013 specifies a set of standard scene-referred colour images (encoded as 16-bit RIMM RGB digital data) that can be used to evaluate transforms from a scene-referred image state to an output-referred image state (colour rendering transforms). They can be used for research, testing and assessing colour rendering transforms, in systems such as digital cameras, camera raw processing applications, colour management systems, colour profiles, and output devices such as displays and printers.

 

 

ISO 12640-1:1997/COR 1:2004

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Part 1: CMYK standard colour image data (CMYK/SCID) — Technical Corrigendum 1

 

 

ISO 12641-1:2016

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Colour targets for input scanner calibration — Part 1: Colour targets for input scanner calibration

 

ISO 12641-1:2016 defines the layout and colorimetric values of targets for use in the calibration of a photographic product/input scanner combination (as used in the preparatory process for printing and publishing). One target is defined for positive colour transparency film and another is defined for colour photographic paper.

 

 

ISO 12641-2:2019

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Part 2: Advanced colour targets for input scanner calibration

 

This document defines a framework for advanced reflective and transmissive layouts and colorimetric values of targets for use in the calibration and characterization of image capturing devices.

 

This document defines a framework for target creation and data reporting. This framework can be used for both ISO defined and custom targets for both reflective and transmissive use.

 

Self-emissive targets are not covered by this document.

 

 

ISO 12642-1:2011

Graphic technology — Input data for characterization of four-colour process printing — Part 1: Initial data set

 

ISO 12642-1:2011 defines an input data file, a measurement procedure and an output data format for use in characterizing any four-colour printing process.

 

 

ISO 12642-2:2006

Graphic technology — Input data for characterization of 4-colour process printing — Part 2: Expanded data set

 

ISO 12642-2:2006 defines a data set of ink value combinations that is intended to be used to characterize four-colour process printing. This data set is not optimized for any printing process or application area but is robust enough for all general applications. The needs of publication, commercial, and package printing with offset, gravure, flexography, and other printing processes have been considered. While it is primarily aimed at process colour printing with CMYK inks, it can also be used with any combination of three chromatic coloured inks and a dark ink. It is an alternate to the ISO 12642-1 data set where more robust data is required.

 

 

ISO 12642-3:2021

Graphic technology — Input data for characterization of 4-colour process printing — Part 3: Extended data set including near neutral scale

 

This document defines a data set of ink value combinations that can be used to characterize four-colour process printing. This data set is not optimized for any printing process or application area but is robust enough for all general applications. While it is primarily aimed at process colour printing with CMYK inks, it can also be used with any combination of three chromatic inks and a dark ink.

 

This document is an alternative to the ISO 126422 data set where more neutral scale data are desired. It is not designed as a replacement for ISO 12642-2.

 

 

ISO 12644:1996

Graphic technology — Determination of rheological properties of paste inks and vehicles by the falling rod viscometer

Contains the procedure for determining the viscosity of paste inks and vehicles which are unreactive under normal room conditions. Applicable to inks in the apparent viscosity range of 2 Pas to 200 Pas.

 

 

ISO 12645:1998

Graphic technology — Process control — Certified reference material for opaque area calibration of transmission densitometers

 

This International Standard defines requirements for a half-tone certified reference material which may be used for the opaque area percentage calibration of transmission densitometers or colorimeters for use in the graphic arts.

 

This International Standard is not applicable to the calibration of transmission densitometers in terms of ISO standard diffuse density.

 

NOTE Test methods for determining the opaque area percentage are given in the informative annex A.

 

 

ISO 12646:2015

Graphic technology — Displays for colour proofing — Characteristics

 

ISO 12646:2015 specifies requirements for two conformance levels for the characteristics of displays to be used for soft proofing of colour images. Included are requirements for uniformity and variations of electro-optical properties with viewing direction for different driving signals.

 

 

ISO 12647-1:2013

Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints — Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods

 

ISO 12647-1:2013 defines and explains the minimum set of primary process control parameters required to uniquely specify the visual characteristics and related technical properties of process-specific production prints and process-independent simulations of fully characterized printing conditions.

 

 

ISO 12647-2:2013

Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints — Part 2: Offset lithographic processes

 

ISO 12647-2:2013 specifies a number of process parameters and their values to be applied when producing colour separations, printing formes and print production for four-colour sheet-fed and web-fed offset printing presses excluding coldset offset lithography on newsprint.

 

The parameters and values are chosen in view of the typical process covering the process stages "colour separation", "proof production", "making of the printing forme", "OK print" and "production printing" on all kinds of commercially available production substrates.

 

ISO 12647-2:2013:

 

is directly applicable to press proof prints and printing processes that use colour separation printing formes as input;

 

is applicable to press proof prints and printing processes with more than four process colours as long as direct analogies to four-colour printing are maintained, such as for data and screening, for print substrates and printing parameters;

 

is applicable to printing on cardboard material for packaging;

 

is applicable for all kinds of drying methods such as heat-set, infrared, and ultraviolet;

 

provides references for quality assurance and quality management.

 

 

ISO 12647-3:2013

Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proofs and production prints — Part 3: Coldset offset lithography on newsprint

 

ISO 12647-3:2013 specifies a number of process parameters and their values to be applied when producing colour separations and printing forms for newspaper single or four-colour printing. The parameters and values are chosen in consideration of the process, covering the process stages: "colour separation", "making of the printing formed", "OK print or proof" and "production printing".

 

ISO 12647-3:2013 is intended to enhance communication between printers, publishers and advertisers and to make print buyers aware of the expected printed result in advance, enabling them to plan accordingly. ISO 12647-3:2013 defines tolerances, allowing for objective quality evaluations and raising the competitiveness of newspapers compared to other media.

 

ISO 12647-3:2013 is applicable:

 

to coldset offset production printing on newsprint that use colour separation data;

 

by analogy to press printing from printing surfaces produced by direct imaging;

 

to line screens and non-periodic screens, parameters given can be applied by analogy.

 

 

ISO 12647-4:2014

Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints — Part 4: Publication gravure printing

 

ISO 12647-4:2014 specifies a number of process parameters and their values to be applied to four-colour publication gravure printing. The parameters and values are chosen in view of the complete process covering the process stages "colour separation", "making of the printing forme", "proof production", and "production printing".

 

ISO 12647-4:2014 is applicable:

 

? directly, to publication gravure printing, including magazines, catalogues, and commercial materials,

 

? directly, to half-tone and continuous tone proofing processes that predict the colourimetric results of gravure printing, and

 

? by analogy, to process-colour gravure package printing.

 

 

ISO 12647-5:2015

Graphic technology — Process control for the manufacture of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints — Part 5: Screen printing

 

ISO 12647-5:2014 specifies the requirements for the screen printing of four-colour process-colour material used for display, signage, and graphics using flat bed or cylinder printing equipment. Both the size and resolution of the finished product are unrestricted. The process stages included are

 

data preparation and delivery,

 

proof production,

 

printing forme preparation, and

 

production printing.

 

 

ISO 12647-6:2020

Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proofs and production prints — Part 6: Flexographic printing

 

This document specifies the requirements for the exchange of data and information necessary for the definition of the aims for four-colour flexographic printing of packaging and publication materials, including newsprint. It is based on the use of colour characterization data to define the colourimetric printing aims and includes appropriate assignment of responsibility for and recommended tolerances on critical parameters of the flexographic printing process.

 

This document is directly applicable to:

 

— publication flexographic printing including magazines, catalogues and commercial materials and packaging flexographic printing including labels, boxes, and flexible packages;

 

— half-tone and continuous tone proofing processes that predict the colourimetric results of flexographic printing.

 

Guidance is also provided concerning the definition of spot colours used in flexographic printing.

 

 

ISO 12647-7:2016

Graphic technology — Process control for the production of halftone colour separations, proof and production prints — Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data

 

ISO 12647-7:2016 specifies requirements for systems that are used to produce hard-copy digital proof prints intended to simulate a printing condition defined by a set of characterization data. Recommendations are provided with regard to appropriate test methods associated with these requirements.

 

 

ISO 12647-8:2021

Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints — Part 8: Validation print processes working directly from digital data

 

This document specifies requirements that can be used for determining the conformance of systems that produce a hard-copy validation print, directly from digital data, which is intended to simulate the expected appearance of material printed in accordance with a characterized printing condition.

It is not intended for use in determining the conformance of production printing systems (digital or conventional) since many aspects of production printing are not covered in this document.

 

ISO 12647-9:2021

Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints — Part 9: Metal decoration printing processes using offset lithography

 

This document specifies requirements for systems that are used to produce offset prints for process colour reproduction on metallic substrates, which have been printed with a white coating. It is intended for flat printed sheet metal applications. It does not cover shaped or pre-formed metal such as pre-formed cans. Recommendations are provided with regard to appropriate test methods associated with these requirements.

This document differs from the method used to produce an offset print on paper or board in ISO 12647-2 in that it considers the colour values of a typical white coated metal substrate intended for metal decoration, using offset lithography and substrates that are independent of backing colour.

 

 

ISO 13655:2017

Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts images

 

ISO 13655:2017 specifies procedures for the measurements and colorimetric computations appropriate to objects that reflect, transmit and emit light, such as flat-panel displays. It also specifies procedures for computation of colorimetric parameters for graphic arts images. Graphic arts include, but are not limited to, the preparation of material for, and volume production by, production printing processes that include offset lithography, letterpress, flexography, gravure, screen and digital printing.

ISO 13655:2017 does not address spectral measurements appropriate to other specific application needs, such as those used during the production of materials, for example, printing paper and proofing media.

 

 

ISO 14298:2021

Graphic technology — Management of security printing processes

 

This document specifies requirements for a security printing management system for security printers.

This document specifies a minimum set of security printing management system requirements. Organizations ensure that customer security requirements are met as appropriate, provided these do not conflict with the requirements of this document.

 

 

ISO 14861:2015

Graphic technology — Requirements for colour soft proofing systems

 

ISO 14861:2015 specifies requirements for systems that are used to produce, from digital data, images on electronic displays that are intended to simulate a characterized printing condition defined by a set of characterization data and spot colours defined by a physical reference. Recommendations are provided with regard to equipment selection, setup, operating, and environmental conditions. Appropriate test methods associated with these requirements are specified.

 

 

ISO 15076-1:2010

Image technology colour management — Architecture, profile format and data structure — Part 1: Based on ICC.1:2010

 

ISO 15076-1:2010 specifies a colour profile format and describes the architecture within which it can operate. This 

architecture supports the exchange of information which specifies the intended colour image processing of digital data. The required reference colour spaces and the data structures (tags) are also specified.

 

 

ISO/TS 15311-1:2020

Graphic technology — Requirements for printed matter for commercial and industrial production — Part 1: Measurement methods and reporting schema

 

This document defines print quality metrics, measurement methods and reporting requirements for printed sheets that are suitable for all classes of printed products.

Guidance as to which of these metrics to apply to any given product category along with acceptable conformance criteria is provided in subsequent parts of ISO/TS 15311.

Although this document is expected to be used primarily to measure prints from digital printing systems, the metrics are general and can be applied to other kinds of print.

 

 

ISO/TS 15311-2:2018

Graphic technology — Print quality requirements for printed matter — Part 2: Commercial print applications utilizing digital printing technologies

 

This document gives guidance to print buyers and other users of print for assessing printed products on isotropic substrates that are typically held at a viewing distance of 30 to 50 cm. It specifies the proper application of required, recommended and optional metrics, measurement methods and, where appropriate, reporting requirements in the general commercial market.

Although this document is expected to be used primarily to measure prints from digital printing systems the metrics are general and may be applied to other kinds of print.

This document does not provide process control aims or tolerances as these differ widely for different types of commercial applications.

 

 

ISO/PAS 15339-1:2015

Graphic technology — Printing from digital data across multiple technologies — Part 1: Principles

 

ISO/PAS 15339-1:2015 establishes principles for the use of colour characterization data as the definition of the intended relationship between input data and printed colour for copy preparation, job assembly, proofing, and graphic arts production printing. Additional parts of ISO/PAS 15339 specify a limited number of characterized reference printing conditions that span the expected range of colour gamuts used for the production of printed material from digital data, regardless of printing process used. The procedure to be used to adjust colour characterization data for the normally expected range of substrate colour is specified.

 

 

ISO/PAS 15339-2:2015

Graphic technology — Printing from digital data across multiple technologies — Part 2: Characterized reference printing conditions, CRPC1-

 

ISO/PAS 15339-2 specifies a limited number of characterized reference printing conditions that span the expected range of colour gamuts used for the production of printed materials from digital data, regardless of the printing process used. Their use is described in ISO/PAS 15339‑1.

 

 

ISO 15930-1:2001

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Use of PDF — Part 1: Complete exchange using CMYK data (PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a)

 

This part of ISO 15930 specifies the methods for the use of the Portable Document Format (PDF) for the dissemination of

compound CMYK digital data, in a single exchange, that is complete and ready for final print reproduction.

 

 

ISO 15930-3:2002

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Use of PDF — Part 3: Complete exchange suitable for colour-managed workflows 

 

ISO 15930-3:2002 specifies the use of the Portable Document Format (PDF) for the dissemination of complete digital data, in a single exchange, that contains all elements necessary for final print reproduction. These exchanges will support both colour-managed workflows and traditional CMYK workflows.

 

 

ISO 15930-4:2003

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 4: Complete exchange of CMYK and spot colour printing data using 

 

ISO 15930-4:2003 specifies the use of the Portable Document Format (PDF) Version 1.4 for the dissemination of complete digital data, in a single exchange that contains all elements ready for final print reproduction. CMYK and spot-colour data are supported in any combination.

 

 

ISO 15930-6:2003

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 6: Complete exchange of printing data suitable for colour-managed  workflows using PDF 1.4 (PDF/X-3)

 

ISO 15930-6:2003 specifies the use of the Portable Document Format (PDF) Version 1.4 for the dissemination of complete digital data, in a single exchange that contains all elements necessary for final print reproduction. Colour-managed, CMYK, Gray, RGB or spot colour data are supported.

 

 

ISO 15930-7:2010

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 7: Complete exchange of printing data (PDF/X-4) and partial exchange of printing data with external profile reference (PDF/X-4p) using PDF 1.6

 

ISO 15930-7:2010 specifies the use of the Portable Document Format (PDF) Version 1.6 for the dissemination of digital data intended for print reproduction. When all elements necessary for final print reproduction are contained within the file, it is designated as PDF/X-4. If a required ICC profile is externally supplied and unambiguously identified, it is designated as PDF/X-4p.

Colour-managed, CMYK, gray, RGB or spot colour data are supported, as are PDF transparency and optional content. Files can be prepared for use with gray, RGB and CMYK printing characterizations.

 

 

ISO 15930-8:2010

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 8: Partial exchange of printing data using PDF 1.6 (PDF/X-5)

 

ISO 15930-8:2010 specifies the use of the Portable Document Format (PDF) Version 1.6 for the dissemination of digital data intended for print, whereby all elements necessary for final print reproduction are either included or provision is made for unique identification of externally supplied graphical content or n‑colorant ICC profiles.

Colour-managed, CMYK, gray, RGB or spot colour data are supported in any combination; as are PDF transparency and optional content. Files can be prepared for use with gray, RGB, CMYK and n-colorant printing characterizations.

 

 

ISO 15930-8:2010/COR 1:2011

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 8: Partial exchange of printing data using PDF 1.6 (PDF/X-5) — Technical Corrigendum 1

 

 

ISO 15930-9:2020

Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 9: Complete exchange of printing data (PDF/X-6) and partial exchange of printing data with external profile reference (PDF/X-6p and PDF/X-6n) using PDF 2.0

 

This document specifies the use of ISO 32000‑2 (PDF 2.0) for the complete and partial exchange of digital data intended for print reproduction.

 

 

ISO 16760:2014

Graphic technology — Prepress data exchange — Preparation and visualization of RGB images to be used in RGB-based graphics arts workflows

 

ISO 16760:2014 specifies requirements for an RGB workflow for graphic arts printing based on the use of reflection prints (RGB Reference Prints) as the evaluation vehicle for coloured images. It provides guidelines on the creation of print-targeted RGB images (RGB Reference Images) and simulation prints.

This International Standard requires the identification of a pair of ICC profiles for each image: an image profile and a profile describing the reference printing system. These profiles provide individual colour transformations for gamut mapping and colour separation. This International Standard does not provide any guidance as to how these gamut mapping or colour separation transforms can be specified.

 

 

ISO 16762:2016

Graphic technology — Post-press — General requirements for transfer, handling and storage

 

ISO 16762:2016 specifies the requirements for the handling, storage and transfer of printed products between printing and post-press. It also identifies information that may be necessary for successful completion of post-press operations (job ticket). In addition, the handling of materials used within the post-press operation is specified.

 

 

ISO 16763:2016

Graphic technology — Post-press — Requirements for bound products

 

ISO 16763:2016 specifies quality requirements and tolerances of bound products and intermediate components. It is applicable to products requiring industrial binding, for example, books, magazines, catalogues and brochures.

 

 

ISO 17972-1:2015

Graphic technology — Colour data exchange format — Part 1: Relationship to CxF3 (CxF/X)

 

ISO17972-1:2015 defines an exchange format for colour and process control data (and the associated metadata necessary for its proper interpretation) in electronic form. It is the base document for describing the use of CxF3 for data exchange. Where required, this part of ISO 17972 also defines additional requirements for a valid CxF/X file. Using XML, all CxF3 and CxF/X documents also support the exchange of data outside of the graphic arts workflow and can support future standards with an extensible architecture using standard XML Names and Metadata tags which can be used with standard XML tools and pass XML validation.

Additional parts of ISO 17972 will use custom resources in conjunction with CxF3 to define the required and optional data for a particular workflow.

 

 

ISO 17972-2:2016

Graphic technology — Colour data exchange format (CxF/X) — Part 2: Scanner target data (CxF/X-2)

 

ISO 17972-2:2016 defines an exchange format for target input values, colour and process control data relating to scanner targets (and the associated metadata necessary for its proper interpretation) in electronic form. This part of ISO 17972 includes the use of a CustomResource element within the CxF framework to define a minimum set of data for exchange and identify the data as being part of ISO 12641.

 

 

ISO 17972-3:2017

Graphic technology — Colour data exchange format (CxF/X) — Part 3: Output target data (CxF/X-3)

 

ISO 17972-3 defines an exchange format for target input values, colour and process control data relating output targets for printers of all types (and the associated metadata necessary for its proper interpretation) in electronic form. ISO 17972-3 includes the use of a CustomResource element within the CXF framework to define a minimum set of data for exchange and identify the data as being part of the ISO 12642 series. If this same framework is used for another defined target, provision is made for that use as well.

 

 

ISO 17972-4:2018

Graphic technology — Colour data exchange format (CxF/X) — Part 4: Spot colour characterisation data (CxF/X-4)

 

ISO 17972-4:2018 defines an exchange format for spectral measurement data of inks to provide a means to characterise spot colour inks to allow reliable printing and proofing of products that have been designed using these inks. Only isotropic (paper-like) substrates are within the scope of this document, which is limited to application areas where the same ink and paper combination that has been characterised is used when printing.

ISO 17972-4:2018 describes the use of a CustomResource element within the CxF framework to define a minimum and recommended set of data for exchange.

 

 

ISO 18619:2015

Image technology colour management — Black point compensation

 

ISO 18619:2015 specifies a procedure, including computation, by which a transform between ICC profiles can be adjusted (compensated) to take into account differences between the dark end of the source colour space and the dark end of the destination colour space. This is referred to as black point compensation (BPC). The relative colorimetric encoding of ICC profile transforms already provides a mechanism for such adjustment of the light (white) end of the tone scale.

 

ISO/TS 21830:2018

Image technology colour management — Black point compensation for n-colour ICC profiles

 

This document specifies a procedure, including computation, for extending the method described in ISO 18619:2015 to n-colour ICC profiles specifically for the xCLR cases where the colourants are either CMYK plus combinations from the set of red, orange, green, blue and violet or where, for the 3CLR case, the colourants are CMY-like chromatic colourants with widely-spaced hue angles. Other types of colour spaces which are otherwise permitted by 15076-1, such as 2CLR (two-device colourants), are not addressed by this document.

 

 

ISO 18620:2016

Graphic technology — Prepress data exchange — Tone adjustment curves exchange

 

ISO 18620:2016 specifies a simple extensible format for the exchange of tone adjustment curves between applications including but not limited to colour management, calibration and raster image processor systems.

 

 

ISO/TS 18621-11:2019

Image quality evaluation methods for printed matter — Part 11: Colour gamut analysis

 

This document defines procedures to measure and compare the colour gamuts of RGB and CMYK printing processes.

It is not applicable to other printing processes.

 

 

ISO 19301:2020

Graphic technology — Guidelines for schema writers — Template for colour quality management

 

This document provides a framework that organisations can follow, and that can be used as the structure for market or sector specific schemes. It is intended to be a process certification.

The goal of this document is to have comparable attestations or certifications worldwide.

 

 

ISO 19302:2018

Graphic technology — Colour conformity of printing workflows

 

This document defines the requirements of printing workflows and evaluation methods for their tone and colour reproduction. 

It applies to any printing process using any colourant, such as CMYK, CMYK with spot, non-CMYK, spot only or multicolour.

This document refers and points to international or national standards and can be used to define, evaluate and audit any printing workflow in whole or in part.

 

 

ISO/TS 19303-1:2020

Graphic technology — Guidelines for schema writers — Part 1: Packaging printing

 

This document provides recommended guidelines for the evaluation of colour reproduction capability in the printing of packaging materials. It provides a basis for the development of colour certification schemes by individual brand owners and/or industry associations and for the evaluation of printed results against those schemes. 

Because the package printing supply chain involves multiple partners, both the potential impact of each partner on the overall colour control and the individual responsibilities of each partner are identified in this document. The unique requirements of the individual reproduction processes and their impact on colour reproduction are also identified.

 

 

ISO 19445:2016

Graphic technology — Metadata for graphic arts workflow — XMP metadata for image and document proofing

 

ISO 19445:2016 specifies the set of metadata to be used to communicate the approval status, proof preparation and viewing parameters for images and documents that are used in the graphic arts print production workflow.

 

 

ISO 19593-1:2018

Graphic technology — Use of PDF to associate processing steps and content data — Part 1: Processing steps for packaging and labels

 

This document describes a method for storing data in a PDF file that correspond to the processing steps of printed products. This method has three parts: 

1) metadata identifying processing steps; 

2) limitations on the interaction between PDF graphics objects that are part of a processing step and other PDF graphics objects; 

3) limitations on PDF graphics objects in processing steps.

This method is intended to be generic, i.e. not specific to packaging and labels.

In addition, this document defines the following packaging- and label-specific groups of processing-steps data:

— data corresponding to finishing steps, such as cutting, folding or glueing;

— Braille;

— information panels;

— indications of physical dimensions;

— indications of intended positions of graphical elements;

— printed white, for example on transparent or metallic surfaces;

— printed varnish.

 

 

ISO 19594:2017

Graphic technology — Test method for the determination of the binding strength for perfect-bound products — Page-pull test working upwards

 

ISO 19594:2017 specifies a test method for the determination of the binding strength of perfect-bound products by pulling out single sheets from the book block in an upward direction.

 

 

ISO 20294:2018

Graphic technology — Quantification and communication for calculating the carbon footprint of e-media

 

This document specifies the requirements for quantifying the carbon footprint of those processes, materials and technologies within the user's knowledge and control that are necessary for the delivery and use of e-media. It covers requirements to account for e-media archiving, distribution, use and storage. It is based on a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach, using defined system boundaries and a specified functional unit as the basis for complete or partial carbon footprinting studies. These data can be referenced throughout supply chains for individual e-media products. 

This document is applicable to a carbon footprint of a product (CFP) study of e-media regarding contents and e-media devices.

This document provides a framework for carbon calculators that organisations can follow and that can be used as the structure for market- or sector-specific carbon footprinting tools. Studies and tools constructed within this framework methodology provide carbon footprint quantifications of e-media that can be validated, verified and provide reference for future studies.

This document does not assess any social or economic aspects or impacts, or any other environmental aspects and related impacts potentially arising from the life cycle of a product.

 

 

ISO 20616-1

Graphic technology — File format for quality control and metadata — Part 1: Print requirements eXchange (PRX)

 

This document specifies an extensible file format in conformity with W3C Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0, for the exchange of print quality requirements data and metadata between print quality control applications including, but not limited to, print quality management systems.

This document is not intended for automating the loading of print requirement goals into the quality control systems employed by print quality service providers.

 

 

ISO 20616-2:2020

Graphic technology — File format for quality control and metadata — Part 2: Print Quality eXchange (PQX)

 

This document specifies an extensible file format in conformity with W3C Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0, for the exchange of print quality data and metadata between quality control applications including but not limited to colour measurement, process control and quality management systems.

 

 

ISO 20654:2017

Graphic technology — Measurement and calculation of spot colour tone value

 

ISO 20654:2017 defines a metric for assessing intermediate tones of a spot ink. This method for the calculation of Spot Colour Tone Value (SCTV) produces approximately uniform visual spacing of tones between substrate and solid. It can be calculated from spectral reflectance or colorimetric measurements of the solid ink, substrate and one or more patches of intermediate tones to be measured.

 

 

ISO 20677:2019

Image technology colour management — Extensions to architecture, profile format and data structure

 

This document is based on ISO 15076-1, and describes an expanded profile specification and profile connections that permit greater flexibility and functionality than ISO 15076-1. All definitions and requirements in ISO 15076-1 are therefore in force unless otherwise specified by this document. This document defines minimum structural and operational requirements for writing and reading ICC profiles. Additional workflow requirements and restrictions are defined in domain-specific interoperability conformance specification (ICS) documents approved and registered by the ICC.

In this document, some ISO 15076-1 types have been removed, and others have been added. A colour management module (CMM) compatible with profiles conforming to this document will have backwards compatibility with profiles conforming to ISO 15076-1.

Where the name of a type in this document is the same as a type in ISO 15076-1, the type definition is based on the ISO 15076-1 definition. The exception is the definition of the MPE type, which has been expanded.

Where the extensions described in this document are not required in a particular workflow, ISO 15076-1 is used as the basis for colour management profiles and architectures.

 

 

ISO/DTS 21328.4

Graphic Technology – Guidelines and Requirements for Multicolour (CMYKOGV) Print Characterisation

 

 

ISO/TS 23031:2020

Graphic technology — Assessment and validation of the performance of spectrocolorimeters and spectrodensitometers

 

This document describes procedures for the assessment and validation of the performance of an optical spectrometer intended for use in capturing the spectral reflectance factor or the spectral radiance factor of printed areas comprised of non-fluorescent or fluorescent materials, respectively. While it does not describe the application to transmitting materials directly, many of the procedures can be applied to transmitting systems by backing them with a reflective white backing material.

This document does not address spectral measurements appropriate to other specific application needs, such as those used during the production of materials (e.g. printing paper and proofing media), which are well described by ISO standards under the jurisdiction of ISO/TC 6. It does not describe the special requirements for testing instruments that make in-process or online colour measurements.

 

 

ISO 23498:2020

Graphic technology — Visual opacity of printed white ink

 

This document specifies a method of measuring the visual opacity of printed specimens of white ink. It is applicable to printing opaque white ink on transparent and white or coloured opaque substrates.

 

 

ISO/TS 23564:2020

Image technology colour management — Evaluating colour transform accuracy in ICC profiles

 

This document describes procedures for evaluating the accuracy of colorimetric rendering intents in ICC profiles.

It applies to v4 ICC profiles made according to ISO 15076-1.

It does not apply to subjective tests of ICC profiles, such as for perceptual or saturation rendering intents, and it does not apply to high dynamic range colour media or spaces.

 

 

ISO 28178:2009

Graphic technology — Exchange format for colour and process control data using XML or ASCII text

 

ISO 28178:2009 defines an exchange format for colour and process control data (and the associated metadata necessary for its proper interpretation) in electronic form using either XML or ASCII formatted data files. It maintains human readability of the data as well as enabling machine readability. It includes a series of predefined tags and keywords, and provides extensibility through provision for the dynamic definition of additional tags and keywords as necessary. It is focused primarily on spectral measurement data, colorimetric data, and densitometric data.

ISO 28178:2009 is intended to be used in conjunction with other standards that will define the required data, and tags or keywords for specific data exchange applications.


Poi non venite a dirmi che non trovate quello che fa al caso vostro.

Grazie a Sergio Molino per la lista.


Buona lettura.